When two or more than two persons run a business jointly, they are called partners and the deal is known as partnership.
Ratio of Divisions of Gains:
1. When investments of all the partners are for the same time, the gain or loss is distributed among the partners in the ratio of their investments.
Suppose A and B invest Rs. x and Rs. y respectively for a year in a business, then at the end of the year:
(A's share of profit) : (B's share of profit) = x : y.
2. When investments are for different time periods, then equivalent capitals are calculated for a unit of time by taking (capital x number of units of time). Now gain or loss is divided in the ratio of these capitals.
Suppose A invests Rs. x for p months and B invests Rs. y for q months then,
(A's share of profit) : (B's share of profit)= xp : yq.
Working and Sleeping Partners:
A partner who manages the the business is known as a "working partner" and the one who simply invests the money is a "sleeping partner".