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    What are the OOPS concepts? and What are the use of OOPs concept?

    1) Encapsulation: It is the mechanism that binds together code and data in manipulates, and keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. In short it isolates a particular code and data from all other codes and data. A well-defined interface controls the access to that particular code and data.
    2) Inheritance: It is the process by which one object acquires the properties of another object. This supports the hierarchical classification. Without the use of hierarchies, each object would need to define all its characteristics explicitly. However, by use of inheritance, an object need only define those qualities that make it unique within its class. It can inherit its general attributes from its parent. A new sub-class inherits all of the attributes of all of its ancestors.
    3) Polymorphism: It is a feature that allows one interface to be used for general class of actions. The specific action is determined by the exact nature of the situation. In general polymorphism means "one interface, multiple methods"; this means that it is possible to design a generic interface to a group of related activities. This helps reduce complexity by allowing the same interface to be used to specify a general class of action. It is the compiler's job to select the specific action (that is, method) as it applies to each situation.

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    2 / 47

    What are the difference between an object and a class?

    Classes are user defined data types and behave like the built-in type of a programming language. The wrapping up of data and functions into a single unit called class.
    Objects are the basic run-time entities in an object-oriented system. When a program is executed, the objects interact by sending messages to one another.

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    3 / 47

    What is virtual constructors/destructors?

    Virtual destructors: If an object (with a non-virtual destructor ) is destroyed explicitly by applying the delete operator to a base-class pointer to the object, the base-class destructor function (matching the pointer type) is called on the object.
    There is a simple solution to this problem – declare a virtual base-class destructor. This makes all derived-class destructors virtual even though they don’t have the same name as the base-class destructor. Now, if the object in the hierarchy is destroyed explicitly by applying the delete operator to a base-class pointer to a derived-class object, the destructor for the appropriate class is called.

    Virtual constructor: Constructors cannot be virtual. Declaring a constructor as a virtual function is a syntax error. Does c++ support multilevel and multiple inheritance?
    What are the advantages of inheritance?
    • It permits code reusability.
    • Reusability saves time in program development.
    • It encourages the reuse of proven and debugged high-quality software, thus reducing problem after a system becomes functional.
    What is the difference between declaration and definition?
    The declaration tells the compiler that at some later point we plan to present the definition of this declaration.
    E.g.: void stars () //function declaration
    The definition contains the actual implementation. E.g.: void stars () // declaration
    for(int j=10; j>=0; j--) //function body cout<<”*”;
    cout< }

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    Object is a software bundle of variables and related methods. Objects have state and behavior.

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    5 / 47

    What is function overloading and operator overloading?

    Function overloading: C++ enables several functions of the same name to be defined, as long as these functions have different sets of parameters (at least as far as their types are concerned). This capability is called function overloading. When an overloaded function is called, the C++ compiler elects the proper function by examining the number, types and order of the arguments in the call. Function overloading is commonly used to create several functions of the same name that perform similar tasks but on different data types.

    Operator overloading allows existing C++ operators to be redefined so that they work on objects of user-defined classes. Overloaded operators are syntactic sugar for equivalent function calls. They form a pleasant facade that doesn't add anything fundamental to the language (but they can improve understand ability and reduce maintenance costs).

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    6 / 47

    What do you mean by inheritance?

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    7 / 47

    What is virtual functions, and explain with an example?

    A virtual function allows derived classes to replace the implementation provided by the base class. The compiler makes sure the replacement is always called whenever the object in question is actually of the derived class, even if the object is accessed by a base pointer rather than a derived pointer. This allows algorithms in the base class to be replaced in the derived class, even if users don't know about the derived class.

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    As the name suggests, the function acts as a friend to a class. As a friend of a class, it can access its private and protected members. A friend function is not a member of the class. But it must be listed in the class definition.

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    9 / 47

    What are the layers of the OSI reference model?

    osi model means( open system interconnection)  .it has seven layers 1.physical layer 2.data link layer 3.network layer 4. transport layer 5. session layer 6.presentation layer 7. application layer

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    10 / 47

    Difference between Router, Switch and Hub

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