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Statements:
Some dogs are rats.
All rats are trees.
Some trees are not dogs.
Conclusions:
I. Some trees are dogs.
II. All dogs are trees.
III. All rats are dogs.
IV. No tree is dog.
ANone follows
BOnly I follows
COnly I and II follow
DOnly II and III follow
EAll follow
Answer: Option B
Explanation:Some dogs are rats. All rats are trees.
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some dogs are trees'. I is the converse of this conclusion and so it holds.
All rats are trees. Some trees are not dogs.
Since the middle term 'trees' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.
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Statements:
All cups are glasses.
Some glasses are bowls.
No bowl is a plate.
Conclusions:
I. No cup is a plate.
II. No glass is a plate.
III. Some plates are bowls.
IV. Some cups are not glasses.
ANone follows
BOnly either I or III follows
COnly II and III follow
DOnly III and IV follow
ENone of these
Answer: Option A
Explanation:All cups are glasses. Some glasses are bowls.
Since the middle term 'glasses' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.
Some glasses are bowls. No bowl is a plate.
Since one premise is particular and the other negative, the conclusion must be particular negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some glasses are not plates'.
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Statements:
Some trains are roads.
No road is jungle.
All flowers are jungles.
Conclusions:
I. Some trains are flowers.
II. Some trains are jungles.
III. Some flowers are trains.
IV. No road is flower.
ANone follows
BOnly II follows
COnly III follows
DOnly IV follows
EAll follow
Answer: Option D
Explanation:Some trains are roads. No road is jungle.
Since one premise is particular and the other negative, the conclusion must be particular negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some trains are not jungles'.
No road is jungle. All flowers are jungles.
Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'No flower is road'. IV is the converse of this conclusion and so it holds.
Some trains are roads, No flower is road.
As discussed above, it follows that 'Some trains are not flowers'.
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Statements:
All doors are buses.
All buses are leaves.
No leaf is a flower.
Conclusions:
I. No flower is a door.
II. No flower is a bus.
III. Some leaves are doors.
IV. Some leaves are buses.
ANone follows
BOnly I and II follow
COnly II and III follow
DOnly II, III and IV follow
EAll follow
Answer: Option E
Explanation:IV is the converse of the second premise and so it holds.
All doors are buses. All buses are leaves.
Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'All doors are leaves'. III is the converse of this conclusion and so it holds.
All buses are leaves. No leaf is a flower.
Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'No bus is flower'. II is the converse of this conclusion and so it holds.
All doors are buses. No bus is flower.
As discussed above, it follows that 'No door is flower'. I is the converse of this conclusion and so it also holds.
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Statements:
Some bricks are trees.
All trees are pens.
All pens are boats.
Conclusions:
I. Some boats are bricks.
II. Some pens are bricks.
III. Some trees are bricks.
IV. Some bricks are boats.
AOnly I and II follow
BOnly III and IV follow
CNone follows
DAll follow
ENone of these
Answer: Option D
Explanation:III is the converse of the first premise and so it holds.
Some bricks are trees. All trees are pens.
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some bricks are pens'. II is the converse of this conclusion and so it holds.
All trees are pens. All pens are boats.
Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'All trees are boats'.
Some bricks are trees. All trees are boats.
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some bricks are boats'. Thus, IV follows. I is the converse of this conclusion and so it also holds.
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Statements:
All oceans are rivers.
Some springs are rivers.
All wells are springs.
Conclusions:
I. Some springs are oceans.
II. Some wells are rivers.
III. Some rivers are oceans.
IV. No well is river.
ANone follows
BOnly either I or III, and IV follow
COnly either II or IV, and III follow
DAll follow
EOnly either II or IV, and I follow
Answer: Option C
Explanation:III is the converse of the first premise and so it holds.
All oceans are rivers. Some springs are rivers.
Since the middle term 'rivers' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.
All wells are springs. Some springs are rivers.
Since the middle term 'springs' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. However, II and IV involve the extreme terms and form a complementary pair. Thus, either II or IV follows.
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Statements:
Some tigers are lions.
Some lions are rabbits.
Some rabbits are horses.
Conclusions:
I. Some tigers are horses.
II. Some rabbits are tigers.
III. Some horses are lions.
IV. All horses are rabbits.
AAll follow
BNone follows
COnly I and II follow
DOnly II and IV follow
EOnly IV follows
Answer: Option B
Explanation:Since each combination of premises shall contain two particular premises, no definite conclusion can be drawn.
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Statements:
All rods are bricks.
Some bricks are ropes.
All ropes are doors.
Conclusions:
I. Some rods are doors.
II. Some doors are bricks.
III. Some rods are not doors.
IV. All doors are ropes.
AOnly I and II follow
BOnly I, II and III follow
COnly either I or III, and II follow
DOnly either I or III, and IV follow
ENone of these
Answer: Option E
Explanation:All rods are bricks. Some bricks are ropes.
Since the middle term 'bricks' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.
Some bricks are ropes. All ropes are doors.
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some bricks are doors'. II is the converse of this conclusion and so it holds.
All rods are bricks. Some bricks are doors.
Since the middle term 'bricks' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.
However, I and III involve the extreme terms. But, since they are not contradictory, they do not form a complementary pair.
Hence, only II follows.
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Statements:
Some spoons are bowls.
All bowls are knives.
All knives are forks.
Conclusions:
I. All spoons are forks.
II. All bowls are forks.
III. Some knives are bowls.
IV. Some forks are spoons.
AOnly II and III follow
BOnly II and IV follow
COnly III and IV follow
DAll follow
ENone of these
Answer: Option E
Explanation:III is the converse of the second premise and so it holds.
Some spoons are bowls. All bowls are knives.
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some spoons are knives'.
All bowls are knives. All knives are forks.
Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that.
'All bowls are forks'. Thus, II follows.
Some spoons are knives. All knives are forks.
Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term.
So, it follows that 'Some spoons are forks'. IV is the converse of this conclusion and so it follows.
Hence, II, III and IV follow.
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Statements:
No man is sky.
No sky is road.
Some men are roads.
Conclusions:
I. No road is man.
II. No road is sky.
III. Some skies are men.
IV. All roads are men.
ANone follows
BOnly I follows
COnly II and III follow
DOnly I and III follow
ENone of these
Answer: Option E
Explanation:II is the converse of the second premise and so it holds.
No man is sky. No sky is road.
Since both the premises are negative, no definite conclusion follows.
No man is sky. Some men are roads.
Since one premise is particular and the other negative, the conclusion must be particular negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some roads are not skies'.
No sky is road. Some men are roads.
As discussed above, it follows that 'Some men are not skies'.
Hence, only II follows.
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